Visualizations of the ECCO Project's 1/48° MITgcm Simulation (aka llc4320)

This page provides access to precomputed visualizations of the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO, Project's 1/48° Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm, simulation, a 14-month global simulation of the ocean (September 2011 to November 2012) that resolves internal tides and admits submesoscale and internal-gravity-wave variability.

The visualizations make accessible nearly all of the output from the simulation: all scalars, all levels, and all regions. A number of different resolutions are available, from single animations that show a global view to regional closeups that are nearly the same resolution as the simulation.

The different resolutions are organized into five series of animations. Three series show most of the globe, and two show the Arctic. The highest resolution series showing the globe has 128 different views organized into 8 rows and 16 columns. The medium resolution global series has 8 views that roughly divide the domain into eighths, and is organized into two rows each having 4 columns. The lowest resolution global series has a single global view. The high resolution Arctic series has 26 views organized into 6 rows and 5 columns (four views are blank), and the low resolution Arctic series has a single view.

Each series of views has visualizations available in two or three different animation resolution sizes, ranging from about 800 by 600 to sizes that only fit on a 4K monitor. Finally, the animations are available with different time steps, ranging from one hour time steps to one day time steps.

For more information about using this page, the ECCO group has a web page with detailed instructions.

Use the menus below to select the animation series, scalar value, and simulation level (depth). A scalar must be selected before the Level menu is populated as the number of available levels vary by scalar. Selecting a 2D scalar automatically selects the single available level. Once the three selections are made, an image map appears below that shows thumbnails of each available view. Clicking on a thumbnail will open a new tab with a page that has links to animations for the available resolutions and time steps.

Series Scalar Level


Note: The menus are sometimes unresponsive when using Safari and returning to this page using the browser Back function. The work-around is to reload the page or to reselect a different value in one of the working menus.

Model output from the 1/48° MITgcm simulation is available at Technical aspects of the visualization are described in Ellsworth et al. (2017). The MITgcm is described in Marshall et al. (1997 a, b). The 1/48° simulation has resulted in more than 80 science publications (see References).


Arbic, B. K., Alford, M. H., Ansong, J. K., Buijsman, M. C., Ciotti, R. B., Farrar, J. T., Hallberg, R. W., Henze, C. E., Hill, C. N., Luecke, C. A., Menemenlis, D., Metzger, E. J., Müeller, M., Nelson, A. D., Nelson, B. C., Ngodock, H. E., Ponte, R. M., Richman, J. G., Savage, A. C., … Zhao, Z. (2018). A Primer on Global Internal Tide and Internal Gravity Wave Continuum Modeling in HYCOM and MITgcm. In E. P. Chassignet, A. Pascual, J. Tintoré, & J. Verron (Eds.), New Frontiers in Operational Oceanography (pp. 30–392). GODAE OceanView

Ardhuin, F., Aksenov, Y., Benetazzo, A., Bertino, L., Brandt, P., Caubet, E., Chapron, B., Collard, F., Cravatte, S., Delouis, J. M., Dias, F., Dibarboure, G., Gaultier, L., Johannessen, J., Korosov, A., Manucharyan, G., Menemenlis, D., Menendez, M., Monnier, G., … Xie, J. (2018). Measuring currents, ice drift, and waves from space: The Sea surface KInematics Multiscale monitoring (SKIM) concept. Ocean Sci., 14(3), 337–354.

Ardhuin, F., Brandt, P., Gaultier, L., Donlon, C., Battaglia, A., Boy, F., Casal, T., Chapron, B., Collard, F., Cravatte, S., Delouis, J.-M., De Witte, E., Dibarboure, G., Engen, G., Johnsen, H., Lique, C., Lopez-Dekker, P., Maes, C., Martin, A., … Stammer, D. (2019). SKIM, a Candidate Satellite Mission Exploring Global Ocean Currents and Waves. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6.

Ardhuin, F., Gille, S. T., Menemenlis, D., Rocha, C. B., Rascle, N., Chapron, B., Gula, J., & Molemaker, J. (2017). Small-scale open ocean currents have large effects on wind wave heights. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(6), 4500–4517.

Bingham, F. M., Fournier, S., Brodnitz, S., Ulfsax, K., & Zhang, H. (2021). Matchup Characteristics of Sea Surface Salinity Using a High-Resolution Ocean Model. Remote Sensing, 13(15), 2995.

Boatwright, V., & Fox-Kemper, B. (2021). Biological and Physical Interactions at Local Ocean Scales: Coupled Systems. Georgetown Scientific Research Journal, 5–17.

Cao, H., Jing, Z., Fox-Kemper, B., Yan, T., & Qi, Y. (2019). Scale Transition From Geostrophic Motions to Internal Waves in the Northern South China Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(12), 9364–9383.

Chen, S., & Qiu, B. (2021). Sea Surface Height Variability in the 30–120km Wavelength Band from Altimetry Along-track Observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.

Chereskin, T. K., Rocha, C. B., Gille, S. T., Menemenlis, D., & Passaro, M. (2019). Characterizing the Transition From Balanced to Unbalanced Motions in the Southern California Current. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(3), 2088–2109.

Cohanim, K., Zhao, K. X., & Stewart, A. L. (2021). Dynamics of Eddies Generated by Sea Ice Leads. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 3071–3092.

Di, J., Ma, C., & Chen, G. (2021). Parallel-Dynamic Interpolation Algorithm of Sea Surface Height for Future 2D Altimetry Mapping of Sea Surface Height. Journal of Ocean University of China, 20(5), 1121–1135.

Dong, J., Fox-Kemper, B., Zhang, H., & Dong, C. (2020). The Scale of Submesoscale Baroclinic Instability Globally. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 50(9), 2649–2667.

Dong, J., Fox-Kemper, B., Zhang, H., & Dong, C. (2020). The Seasonality of Submesoscale Energy Production, Content, and Cascade. Geophysical Research Letters, 47(6).

Dong, J., Fox-Kemper, B., Zhang, H., & Dong, C. (2021). The scale and activity of symmetric instability estimated from a global submesoscale-permitting ocean model. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 1655–1670.

Ellsworth, D. A., Henze, C. E., & Nelson, B. C. (2017). Interactive visualization of high-dimensional petascale ocean data. 2017 IEEE 7th Symposium on Large Data Analysis and Visualization (LDAV), 36–44.

Erickson, Z. K. (2019). Physical Processes Leading to Export of Fixed Carbon Out of the Surface Ocean [California Institute of Technology].

Erickson, Z. K., Thompson, A. F., Callies, J., Yu, X., Garabato, A. N., & Klein, P. (2020). The Vertical Structure of Open-Ocean Submesoscale Variability during a Full Seasonal Cycle. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 50(1), 145–160.

Farrar, J. T., D’Asaro, E., Rodriguez, E., Shcherbina, A., Czech, E., Matthias, P., … Jenkins, R. (2020). S-MODE: The Sub-Mesoscale Ocean Dynamics Experiment. In IGARSS 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 3533–3536. IEEE.

Flexas, M. M., Thompson, A. F., Torres, H. S., Klein, P., Farrar, J. T., Zhang, H., & Menemenlis, D. (2019). Global Estimates of the Energy Transfer From the Wind to the Ocean, With Emphasis on Near-Inertial Oscillations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(8), 5723–5746.

Freilich, M. A., & Mahadevan, A. (2019). Decomposition of Vertical Velocity for Nutrient Transport in the Upper Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 49(6), 1561–1575.

Fukumori, I., Fenty, I., Forget, G., Heimbach, P., King, C., & Nguyen, A. (2018). Data sets used in ECCO Version 4 Release 3.

Fukumori, I., Wang, O., Fenty, I., Forget, G., Heimbach, P., & Ponte, R. M. (2017). ECCO Version 4 Release 3.

Galperin, B., & Sukoriansky, S. (2020). Quasinormal scale elimination theory of the anisotropic energy spectra of atmospheric and oceanic turbulence. Physical Review Fluids, 5(6), 063803.

Hutter, N. (2019). Resolving Leads in Sea-Ice Models: New Analysis Methods for Frontier Resolution Arctic Simulations [Universität Bremen].

Hutter, N., Losch, M., & Menemenlis, D. (2018). Scaling Properties of Arctic Sea Ice Deformation in a High-Resolution Viscous-Plastic Sea Ice Model and in Satellite Observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(1), 672–687.

Klein, P., Lapeyre, G., Siegelman, L., Qiu, B., Fu, L., Torres, H., Su, Z., Menemenlis, D., & Le Gentil, S. (2019). Ocean-Scale Interactions From Space. Earth and Space Science, 2018EA000492.

Lee, E. A., & Kim, S. Y. (2021). A diagnosis of surface currents and sea surface heights in a coastal region. Continental Shelf Research, 104486.

Lin, H., Liu, Z., Hu, J., Menemenlis, D., & Huang, Y. (2020). Characterizing meso- to submesoscale features in the South China Sea. Progress in Oceanography, 188, 102420.

Luecke, C. A., Arbic, B. K., Richman, J. G., Shriver, J. F., Alford, M. H., Ansong, J. K., Bassette, S. L., Buijsman, M. C., Menemenlis, D., Scott, R. B., Timko, P. G., Voet, G., Wallcraft, A. J., & Zamudio, L. (2020). Statistical Comparisons of Temperature Variance and Kinetic Energy in Global Ocean Models and Observations: Results from Mesoscale to Internal Wave Frequencies. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.

Marshall, J., Adcroft, A., Hill, C., Perelman, L., & Heisey, C. (1997b). A finite-volume, incompressible Navier Stokes model for studies of the ocean on parallel computers. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 102(C3), 5753–5766.

Marshall, J., Hill, C., Perelman, L., & Adcroft, A. (1997a). Hydrostatic, quasi-hydrostatic, and nonhydrostatic ocean modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 102(C3), 5733–5752.

Mauzole, Y. L., Torres, H. S., & Fu, L. -L. (2020). Patterns and Dynamics of SST Fronts in the California Current System. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125(2).

Mazloff, M. R., Cornuelle, B., Gille, S. T., & Wang, J. (2020). The Importance of Remote Forcing for Regional Modeling of Internal Waves. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125(2).

Miao, M., Zhang, Z., Qiu, B., Liu, Z., Zhang, X., Zhou, C., … Tian, J. (2021). On contributions of multiscale dynamic processes to the steric height in the northeastern South China Sea as revealed by moored observations. Geophysical Research Letters.

Nakayama, Y., Manucharyan, G., Zhang, H., Dutrieux, P., Torres, H. S., Klein, P., Seroussi, H., Schodlok, M., Rignot, E., & Menemenlis, D. (2019). Pathways of ocean heat towards Pine Island and Thwaites grounding lines. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 16649.

Nakayama, Y., Menemenlis, D., Zhang, H., Schodlok, M., & Rignot, E. (2018). Origin of Circumpolar Deep Water intruding onto the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Sea continental shelves. Nat. Commun., 9(1), 3403.

Nelson, A. D., Arbic, B. K., Menemenlis, D., Peltier, W. R., Alford, M. H., Grisouard, N., & Klymak, J. M. (2020). Improved Internal Wave Spectral Continuum in a Regional Ocean Model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.

Ngeve, M. N., Van der Stocken, T., Menemenlis, D., Koedam, N., & Triest, L. (2016). Contrasting Effects of Historical Sea Level Rise and Contemporary Ocean Currents on Regional Gene Flow of Rhizophora racemosa in Eastern Atlantic Mangroves. PLoS ONE, 11(3), e0150950.

Ngeve, M. N., Van der Stocken, T., Menemenlis, D., Koedam, N., & Triest, L. (2017). Hidden founders? Strong bottlenecks and fine-scale genetic structure in mangrove populations of the Cameroon Estuary complex. Hydrobiologia, 803(1), 189–207.

Nguyen, A. T., Heimbach, P., Garg, V. V., Ocaña, V., Lee, C., & Rainville, L. (2020). Impact of Synthetic Arctic Argo-Type Floats in a Coupled Ocean–Sea Ice State Estimation Framework. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 37(8), 1477–1495.

Pan, Y., Arbic, B. K., Nelson, A. D., Menemenlis, D., Peltier, W. R., Xu, W., & Li, Y. (2020). Numerical investigation of mechanisms underlying oceanic internal gravity wave power-law spectra. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 1–53.

Pratt, L. J., Voet, G., Pacini, A., Tan, S., Alford, M. H., Carter, G. S., Girton, J. B., & Menemenlis, D. (2019). Pacific Abyssal Transport and Mixing: Through the Samoan Passage versus around the Manihiki Plateau. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 49(6), 1577–1592.

Qiu, B., Chen, S., Klein, P., Torres, H., Wang, J., Fu, L.-L., & Menemenlis, D. (2020). Reconstructing Upper-Ocean Vertical Velocity Field from Sea Surface Height in the Presence of Unbalanced Motion. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 50(1), 55–79.

Qiu, B., Chen, S., Klein, P., Wang, J., Torres, H. S., Fu, L.-L., & Menemenlis, D. (2018). Seasonality in Transition Scale from Balanced to Unbalanced Motions in the World Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 48(3), 591–605.

Rocha, C. B. (2018). The turbulent and wavy upper ocean: transition from geostrophic flows to internal waves and stimulated generation of near-inertial waves [Univesrity of California, San Diego].

Rocha, C. B., Chereskin, T. K., Gille, S. T., & Menemenlis, D. (2016). Mesoscale to Submesoscale Wavenumber Spectra in Drake Passage. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 46(2), 601–620.

Rocha, C. B., Gille, S. T., Chereskin, T. K., & Menemenlis, D. (2016). Seasonality of submesoscale dynamics in the Kuroshio Extension. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43(21), 11304–11311.

Ruan, X. (2019). Oceanic Bottom Boundary Layers and Abyssal Overturning Circulation. California Institute of Technology.

Savage, A. (2017). Sea Surface Height Signatures of Internal Gravity Waves [The University of Michigan].

Savage, A. C., Arbic, B. K., Alford, M. H., Ansong, J. K., Farrar, J. T., Menemenlis, D., O’Rourke, A. K., Richman, J. G., Shriver, J. F., Voet, G., Wallcraft, A. J., & Zamudio, L. (2017). Spectral decomposition of internal gravity wave sea surface height in global models. J. Geophys. Res. Ocean., 122.

Siegelman, L. (2020). Energetic Submesoscale Dynamics in the Ocean Interior. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 50(3), 727–749.

Siegelman, L., Klein, P., Rivière, P., Thompson, A. F., Torres, H. S., Flexas, M., & Menemenlis, D. (2020). Enhanced upward heat transport at deep submesoscale ocean fronts. Nature Geoscience 13(1), 50–55.

Siegelman, L., Klein, P., Thompson, A. F., Torres, H. S., & Menemenlis, D. (2020). Altimetry-Based Diagnosis of Deep-Reaching Sub-Mesoscale Ocean Fronts. Fluids, 5(3), 145.

Sinha, A. (2019). Temporal Variability in Ocean Mesoscale and Submesoscale Turbulence. Columbia University.

Sinha, A., Balwada, D., Tarshish, N., & Abernathey, R. (2019). Modulation of Lateral Transport by Submesoscale Flows and Inertia-Gravity Waves. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 2018MS001508.

Stewart, A. L., Klocker, A., & Menemenlis, D. (2018). Circum-Antarctic Shoreward Heat Transport Derived From an Eddy- and Tide-Resolving Simulation. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(2), 834–845.

Stewart, A. L., Klocker, A., & Menemenlis, D. (2019). Acceleration and Overturning of the Antarctic Slope Current by Winds, Eddies, and Tides. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 49(8), 2043–2074.

Strobach, E., Molod, A., Trayanov, A., Forget, G., Campin, J.-M., Hill, C., & Menemenlis, D. (2020). Three-to-Six-Day Air-Sea Oscillation in Models and Observations. Geophysical Research Letters, e2019GL085837.

Su, Z., Torres, H., Klein, P., Thompson, A. F., Siegelman, L., Wang, J., Menemenlis, D., & Hill, C. (2020). High-Frequency Submesoscale Motions Enhance the Upward Vertical Heat Transport in the Global Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125(9).

Su, Z., Wang, J., Klein, P., Thompson, A. F., & Menemenlis, D. (2018). Ocean submesoscales as a key component of the global heat budget. Nat. Commun., 9(775), 1–8.

Thompson, A. F., Stewart, A. L., Spence, P., & Heywood, K. J. (2018). The Antarctic Slope Current in a Changing Climate. Reviews of Geophysics, 56(4), 741–770.

Torres, H. S., Klein, P., Menemenlis, D., Qiu, B., Su, Z., Wang, J., Chen, S., & Fu, L.-L. (2018). Partitioning ocean motions into balanced motions and internal gravity waves: A modeling study in anticipation of future space missions. J. Geophys. Res. Ocean., 123(11), 8084–8105.

Torres, H. S., Klein, P., Siegelman, L., Qiu, B., Chen, S., Ubelmann, C., Wang, J., Menemenlis, D., & Fu, L. -L. (2019). Diagnosing Ocean-Wave-Turbulence Interactions From Space. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(15), 8933–8942.

Triest, L., Sierens, T., Menemenlis, D., & Van der Stocken, T. (2018). Inferring Connectivity Range in Submerged Aquatic Populations (Ruppia L.) Along European Coastal Lagoons From Genetic Imprint and Simulated Dispersal Trajectories. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9.

Ubelmann, C., Dibarboure, G., & Dubois, P. (2018). A Cross-Spectral Approach to Measure the Error Budget of the SWOT Altimetry Mission over the Ocean. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 35(4), 845–857.

Van der Stocken, T., Carroll, D., Menemenlis, D., Simard, M., & Koedam, N. (2018). Global-scale dispersal and connectivity in mangroves. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201812470.

Van der Stocken, T., & Menemenlis, D. (2017). Modelling mangrove propagule dispersal trajectories using high-resolution estimates of ocean surface winds and currents. Biotropica, 49(4), 472–481.

Vazquez-Cuervo, J., Gentemann, C., Tang, W., Carroll, D., Zhang, H., Menemenlis, D., … Steele, M. (2021). Using Saildrones to Validate Arctic Sea-Surface Salinity from the SMAP Satellite and from Ocean Models. Remote Sensing, 13(5), 831.

Vazquez-Cuervo, J., Torres, H. S., Menemenlis, D., Chin, T. M., & Armstrong, E. M. (2017). Relationship between SST gradients and upwelling off Peru and Chile: model/satellite data analysis. Int. J. Remote Sens., 38(23), 6599–6622.

Viglione, G. A. (2019). Dynamics of Southern Ocean Mixed Layers. California Institute of Technology.

Viglione, G. A., Thompson, A. F., Flexas, M. M., Sprintall, J., & Swart, S. (2018). Abrupt Transitions in Submesoscale Structure in Southern Drake Passage: Glider Observations and Model Results. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 48(9), 2011–2027.

Villas Bôas, A. B., Cornuelle, B. D., Mazloff, M. R., Gille, S. T., & Ardhuin, F. (2020). Wave-Current Interactions at Meso and Submesoscales: Insights from Idealized Numerical Simulations. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 1–45.

Wang, J., & Fu, L.-L. (2019). On the Long-Wavelength Validation of the Swot Karin Measurement. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology.

Wang, J., Fu, L.-L., Torres, H. S., Chen, S., Qiu, B., & Menemenlis, D. (2019). On the Spatial Scales to be Resolved by the Surface Water and Ocean Topography Ka-Band Radar Interferometer. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 36(1), 87–99.

Wang, J., Qiu, B., Menemenlis, D., Thomas Farrar, J., Chao, Y., Thompson, A. F., Flexas, M. M., Fu, L. L., Qiu, B., Menemenlis, D., Thomas Farrar, J., Chao, Y., Thompson, A. F., & Flexas, M. M. (2018). An observing system simulation experiment for the calibration and validation of the Surface Water Ocean Topography Sea surface height measurement using in situ platforms. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 35(2), 281–297.

Wineteer, A. G. (2016). Towards Improved Estimates of Upper Ocean Energetics [California Polytechnic State University].

Wineteer, A., Torres, H. S., & Rodriguez, E. (2020). On the Surface Current Measurement Capabilities of Spaceborne Doppler Scatterometry. Geophysical Research Letters, 47(21).

Wu, F., Cornillon, P., Guan, L., & Kilpatrick, K. (2019). Long-Term Variations in the Pixel-to-Pixel Variability of NOAA AVHRR SST Fields from 1982 to 2015. Remote Sensing, 11(7), 844.

Yang, Y., McWilliams, J. C., Liang, X. S., Zhang, H., Weisberg, R. H., Liu, Y., & Menemenlis, D. (2020). Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of the Submesoscale Energetics in the Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Physical Oceanography.

Yu, X., Naveira Garabato, A. C., Martin, A. P., Buckingham, C. E., Brannigan, L., & Su, Z. (2019). An Annual Cycle of Submesoscale Vertical Flow and Restratification in the Upper Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography, JPO-D-18-0253.1.

Yu, X., Ponte, A. L., Elipot, S., Menemenlis, D., Zaron, E. D., & Abernathey, R. (2019). Surface Kinetic Energy Distributions in the Global Oceans From a High-Resolution Numerical Model and Surface Drifter Observations. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(16), 9757–9766.

Zaron, E. D., & Rocha, C. B. (2018). Internal Gravity Waves and Meso/Submesoscale Currents in the Ocean: Anticipating High-Resolution Observations from the SWOT Swath Altimeter Mission. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99(9), ES155–ES157.

Zhao, Z., Wang, J., Menemenlis, D., Fu, L.-L., Chen, S., & Qiu, B. (2019). Decomposition of the multimodal multidirectional M 2 internal tide field. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, JTECH-D-19-0022.1.